O Diabo ou Satanás do Judaísmo e do cristianismo

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Surpreendentemente, há poucas referências a Satanás na Bíblia Cristã. Algumas referências, uma vez tidas como sendo referências são agora conhecidas devido a melhores traduções, como a de Lúcifer, que agora sabemos refere-se a um rei morto honrosamente. Mesmo a serpente na História de Adão não é Satanás (e não é chamada de Satanás). Como o Jardim do Éden era um paraíso perfeito e um lugar livre do pecado, como poderia Satanás ter estado lá? É ridículo pensar que Deus expulsou Adão e Eva do Éden por causa do pecado, enquanto ele permitiu a Satanás rastejar por aí!
Satanás nunca foi o nome do opositor durante a maior parte da história do Judaísmo. Houve um ser chamado o opositor , ou o adversário. Assim, em “O Livro de Jó”, no século 4 a.C. um ser descrito como “o Satanás” se aproxima de Deus e “Satanás” não era o seu nome; a palavra usada significa “opositor”. Foi só mais tarde que “Satanás” se tornou o nome de um ser.

“Nas fontes bíblicas o termo hebráico satan é descrito de forma contraditória e não é o nome de um carácter em particular. Apesar de contadores de histórias hebraicas, logo no século VI a.C. ocasionalmente introduzir um caráter sobrenatural a quem chamavam de satanás, eles se referiam a qualquer um dos anjos enviados por Deus para o propósito específico de bloquear ou obstruir a atividade humana. ” ” The Origin of Satan “, de Elaine Pagels (1995)

Exemplos:


Zacarias 3: 1-2: “E ele mostrou-me o sumo sacerdote Josué, o qual estava diante do anjo do SENHOR, e Satanás estava à sua mão direita, para se lhe opor. Mas o Senhor disse a Satanás: O Senhor te repreenda, ó Satanás, sim, o Senhor, que escolheu Jerusalém, te repreenda; não é este um tição tirado do fogo?”

Salmo 109: 6: “Põe sobre ele um ímpio, e Satanás esteja à sua direita”.

Números 22: 22,32: “e o anjo do Senhor pôs-se-lhe no caminho por adversário; e ele ia caminhando, montado na sua jumenta, e dois de seus servos com ele […] Eis que eu saí para ser teu adversário”

1 Samuel 29: 4: “disseram-lhe os príncipes dos filisteus: Faze voltar este homem [Davi], e não desça conosco à batalha, para que não se torne nosso adversário”

2 Samuel 19:22: Porém Davi disse: Que tenho eu convosco, filhos de Zeruia, para que hoje [de Satanás/adversários] me sejais (plural)?

1Reis5:4: Salomão escreve a Hiram: “. não há nem adversário, nem calamidade alguma”

1Reis 11:14: “E o Senhor despertou contra Salomão um adversário, Hadade, o edomita”

1 Reis 11: 23-25: ” Também Deus lhe levantou outro adversário, a Rezom, filho de Eliada […] E foi adversário de Israel, por todos os dias de Salomão”

1 Crônicas 21: 1: “Então Satanás se levantou contra Israel, e incitou Davi a numerar a Israel.”
VEJA A MESMA HISTÓRIA CONTADA EM 2 Samuel 24:1: “E a ira do SENHOR se tornou a acender contra Israel; e incitou a Davi contra eles, dizendo: Vai, numera a Israel e a Judá”.
PORTANTO. DEUS E SATANÁS SÃO INTERCAMBIÁVEIS.

Vejamos a discussão abaixo:


Em Jó1:8-12: Deus e Satanás conspiram para trazer muito sofrimento contra o santo homem Jó, embora os papéis de Deus e Satanás estejam misturados.

Veja a descrição de Deus e Satanás abaixo. Eles são intercambiáveis:


“Nem ainda as trevas me encobrem de ti; mas a noite resplandece como o dia; as trevas e a luz são para ti a mesma coisa.” Salmos 139:12. “E não é maravilha, porque o próprio Satanás se transfigura em anjo de luz.” 2 Corinthians 11:14

Vários autores fizeram cópias das escrituras hebréias e, às vezes, a mesma história aparece duas vezes. Há ainda dois relatos da Criação que se contradizem nos detalhes. Uma dessas histórias repetidas nos mostra claramente que o Deus do Antigo Testamento é o mal, e Satanás não é um ser separado, mas na verdade é parte de Deus, a face de Deus. Há uma ocasião em que Davi fez um censo de seus homens, a fim de contar quantos podiam lutar nos exércitos de Israel. 1 Crônicas 21: 2 e 2 Samuel 24: 2 e ambos contêm uma cópia exata do mesmo texto. Exemplos:

“E disse Davi a Joabe e aos maiorais do povo: Ide, numerai a Israel, desde Berseba até Dã; e trazei-me a conta para que saiba o número deles.” 1 Crônicas 21:2
“Disse, pois, o rei a Joabe, capitão do exército, o qual tinha consigo: Agora percorre todas as tribos de Israel, desde Dã até Berseba, e numera o povo, para que eu saiba o número do povo.” 2 Samuel 24: 2

O que aconteceu é que Deus tinha uma regra: Davi não tinha permissão para ‘númerar’ Israel. Mas, por alguma razão, Davi foi em frente e o fez. Como resultado, Deus o castigou por quebrar a sua regra. Mas, é muito revelador quando examinamos o verso anterior: Quem inspirou David a contar os guerreiros de Israel?

” Satanás se levantou contra Israel e incitou Davi a fazer um censo de Israel.” 1 Crônicas 21: 1
“A ira do Senhor se acendeu contra Israel, e ele incitou a Davi contra eles, dizendo: “Vai, e fazer um censo de Israel e Judá.” 2 Samuel 24: 1

Em uma cópia da história, Satanás disse a Davi para numerar Israel. Na outra, era Deus. Como pode ser isso? O motivo é que Deus e Satã são a mesma pessoa no Antigo Testamento, e Satã é apenas o rosto que Deus usa quando está testando o seu povo. “A ira do Senhor” é Satanás .

Era comum nas religiões antigas ( Hinduísmo, religiões romanas, etc) que os deuses tivessem várias faces, cada uma associada a diferentes emoções. Na Bíblia cristã , Satanás é Deus .

Uma confusão semelhante de papéis acontece no Livro de Jó. Em Jó1:8-12 Satanás se aproxima de Deus e pede para testar a lealdade de Jó para com Deus.
Em Jó 01:11, é Deus quem pergunta: ” Mas estende a tua mão, e toca-lhe em tudo quanto tem, e verás se não blasfema contra ti na tua face.
A idéia é de que, se Deus destrói a boa vida de Jó este deixará de ser fiel a Deus. Mas Satanás não pode fazer isso por si só, pois é Deus quem tem o poder de fazer o mal. No verso seguinte, Deus dá esse poder a Satanás :


” E disse o Senhor a Satanás: Eis que tudo quanto ele tem está no teu poder; somente contra ele não estendas a tua mão. ” Jó 1:12[KJV]
Assim, Satanás atua somente quando Deus lhe dá poder para fazê-lo. Mais uma vez, vemos que Deus e Satanás são apenas duas facetas do mesmo ser. Um ultimo versículo sela esta idéia. Quando concluimos a história do capítulo 42.
A quem é dado o crédito por trazer o mal contra Jó? Ao próprio Deus.

“Então vieram a ele todos os seus irmãos, e todas as suas irmãs, e todos quantos dantes o conheceram, e comeram com ele pão em sua casa, e se condoeram dele, e o consolaram acerca de todo o MAL QUE O SENHOR LHE HAVIA ENVIADO.” Jó 42:11[KJV]

Deus e Satanás estão interligados. Satanás não pode fazer nada a não ser pela vontade de Deus. Salmos 139: 12 , 1 Crônicas 21: 1-2 e 2 Samuel 24: 1-2 , e Jó 1: 8-12 , 42:11. Todos confundem o bem e o mal e Deus e Satanás é uma única força criativa, com Deus sendo descrito como não apenas como a fonte do mal, mas como o seu verdadeiro instigador. Deus não pode ser benevolente.

Tradução: Ana Burke.

Fonte: http://www.humanreligions.info/satan.html

 

O Cristianismo e a Escravidão 

A Igreja Católica autorizou e incentivou a escravidão, assim como também traficava escravos para as américas. Nos Estados Unidos a participação das Igrejas protestantes e Calvinistas foi marcante e “grandes” homens de Igrejas do Sul, como o Dr. James Thornwell, presbiteriano, Dr. Richard Furman e Dr. Fuller, batistas, bispo Stephen Elliott, episcopal, e Bishop James O. Andrew, Metodista, LIDERARAM A LUTA A FAVOR DA ESCRAVIDÃO. 


Os clérigos do Sul basearam seu argumento diretamente sobre as Escrituras. Eles apontaram que o Antigo Testamento especificamente defendia a escravidão, tanto em função do pecado e sobre a base das relações com os pagãos. Estes são os textos bíblicos usados:

“E ele disse: Maldito seja Canaã; servo dos servos seja aos seus irmãos.” (Gn 9:25).

“E quanto a teu escravo ou a tua escrava que tiveres, serão das nações que estão ao redor de vós; deles comprareis escravos e escravas.
Também os comprareis dos filhos dos forasteiros que peregrinam entre vós, deles e das suas famílias que estiverem convosco, que tiverem gerado na vossa terra; e vos serão por possessão.
E possuí-los-eis por herança para vossos filhos depois de vós, para herdarem a possessão; perpetuamente os fareis servir; mas sobre vossos irmãos, os filhos de Israel, não vos assenhoreareis com rigor, uns sobre os outros.” Levítico 25:44-46

Assim, eles argumentaram que a Bíblia confirmou a compra, venda e posse de escravos, desde que eles não eram cristãos e de uma raça diferente. Em vão os cristãos do Norte argumentaram que a passagem era aplicada apenas para o povo judeu em sua condição particular. Os sulistas responderam que Jesus NÃO condenou a escravidão em nenhum lugar, nem nunca falou uma palavra contra ela. Paulo chegou ao ponto de enviar um escravo de volta ao seu mestre. Se a escravidão era um mal ou pecado, não teria Jesus ou Paulo condenado a escravidão?


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Bula Papal autorizando a escravidão


A Dum Diversas é uma bula papal publicada em 18 de junho de 1452 pelo Papa Nicolau V, dirigida ao rei Afonso V de Portugal, e acreditada por muitos ter inaugurado o comércio de escravos africanos. Nesta bula ele autoriza Afonso V de Portugal a conquistar sarracenos e pagãos e a fazer deles escravos perpétuos. Esta bula foi reiterada pelo papa Calisto III em 1456 e renovada pelo Papa Sisto III em 1481 e o Papa Leão X, em 1514. O conceito da remessa de esferas de influência exclusivas a determinados Estados-nação foi estendido para a América em 1493 pelo Papa Alexandre VI.
Dum Diversas foi uma bula, com poder geográfico essencialmente ilimitado na sua aplicação, talvez o mais importante ato papal relativas à colonização Portuguesa, afirmando o seguinte:Nós concedemos a você [Reis de Espanha e Portugal] por estes presentes documentos, com nossa Autoridade Apostólica, plena e livre permissão de invadir, buscar, capturar e subjugar os sarracenos e pagãos e quaisquer outros incrédulos e inimigos de Cristo onde quer que eles podem estar, bem como os seus reinos, ducados, condados, principados e outras propriedades [...] e reduzir suas pessoas à escravidão perpétua.Em 8 de Janeiro de 1455, o papa Nicolau V esclareceu um problema, surgido entre os Portugueses e espanhóis, sobre quem seria o dono das Ilhas Canárias, decidindo esta questão a favor dos portugueses, na bula “ROMANUS PONTIFLEX” onde reafirma tudo o que foi dito na bula “DUM DIVERSAS”. E nesta bula, o papa também sancionou, isto é, deixou bem claro, que os Portugueses devem realizar a compra de escravos negros ao longo da costa africana usando forca ou trocando-os por mercadoria.

“Desde então, além disso, muitos homens da Guiné e outros negros, tomados à força, e alguns pela permuta de artigos não proibidos, ou por outros contratos legais de compra, têm sido enviados para os ditos reinos. Um grande número destes tem sido convertidos à fé Católica, e isso é desejável, através do socorro da misericórdia divina, e se tal progresso for continuado com eles, também aqueles povos serão convertidos para a fé ou pelo menos as almas de muitos deles serão ganhas para Cristo.”

Os negros cristãos são completamente não conhecem a sua própria história e a história dos seus antepassados. Os negros um dia foram faraós e dominaram o mundo. Foram feitos escravos e a maioria continuam escrava, mudaram de dono e agora pertencem ao deus de Israel e aos judeus.

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Fechando o ciclo da vida e voltando ao pó

 

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Por Ana Burke

Segundo a filosofia de toda e qualquer religião, ninguém poderá atingir a felicidade aqui na Terra, porque todos, por mais espiritualmente perfeitos que sejam tem que conviver com a imperfeição e o sofrimento de outros ditos imperfeitos e pecadores, que merecem o sofrimento, ou por escolha própria, antes de retornar à Terra reencarnado, ou por serem pecadores. pela lógica, pecadores deverão sofrer eternamente e os salvos também, nesta vida, e após a morte, pois não serão todos escolhidos por Deus para entrar no Reino dos Céus, e a maioria estará, de uma forma ou de outra condenada, ou eternamente, ou temporariamente. Neste caso, o sofrimento sempre estaria presente na vida do homem, de uma forma ou de outra.

Aqueles que serão salvos do inferno (os escolhidos por Deus), seres considerados pelas religiões como perfeitos e evoluídos espiritualmente, não poderão ser felizes no céu ou paraíso prometido simplesmente esquecendo-se dos sofredores em outros planos ou aqui na Terra, sendo que muitos destes sofredores seriam membros da própria família a qual pertenceram aqui na Terra. Se este ser, escolhido para viver no paraíso, ignorar os seus no inferno ou no sofrimento, ele não poderá ser chamado espírito evoluído, perfeito, ou merecedor deste paraíso e Deus cometeu um engano. Deus não comete enganos, o que é contraditório. Então, eu suponho que ninguém irá para o paraíso e, se alguém for, não será feliz lá, a menos que tais pessoas tenham perdido totalmente a sua consciência depois de morto e, segundo os ensinamentos dos homens das igrejas, a consciência que ninguém usa enquanto está vivo, vai estar funcionando bem após a morte.

Imaginemos uma família. Se um membro da família adoece gravemente, ou sofre uma violência ou um acidente terrível. Toda a família sente e sofre junto. A família não é feliz quando um de seus membros está sofrendo, a menos que a família fuja ao conceito que se tem de família. Da mesma forma, se entendemos que o planeta é a nossa casa, o nosso lar, e somos todos irmãos, como posso eu não me importar com o sofrimento e o desespero de um de meus irmãos ou filhos?

Falando de religião, todas oferecem a Salvação ou uma vida melhor depois da morte física. Aqueles que esperam a salvação, ou ser feliz depoís da morte, não estão…não são felizes. Eles esperam ser, e quem espera não é…Quem espera está vivendo num futuro imaginário e improvável baseado na fé e aquele que têm fé não raciocina porque se raciocinasse usaria a razão ao invés da fé. Portanto eu não sou obrigada a respeitar um deus ou uma religião que me obrigue a ser irracional.

Você paga uma missa pelas almas? Não adianta.

Você reza pelos mortos.? Não adianta.

Você acende vela pelos mortos ou por um ente querido? Não adianta.

Pelo que a maioria das religiões afirmam, cada um paga pelos seus pecados ou cada um é responsável pela sua própria evolução espiritual. Falando do Cristianismo, a bíblia diz:

Os pais não morrerão pelos filhos, nem os filhos pelos pais; cada um morrerá pelo seu pecado. Deuteronômio 24:16

A alma que pecar, essa morrerá; o filho não levará a iniqüidade do pai, nem o pai levará a iniqüidade do filho. A justiça do justo ficará sobre ele e a impiedade do ímpio cairá sobre ele. Ezequiel 18:20

Por quê o cristão é irracional e bárbaro? Porque ele não pensa em ninguém a não ser em si mesmo. E se a mãe vai para o inferno? O filho? A filha? Ele vai ser feliz neste paraíso? Qualquer animal pensa e defende a cria, o religioso não.

Pode alguém gozar dos benefícios do paraíso prometido, eternamente, mesmo sabendo que seus filhos ou membros de sua família estão sendo torturados e vão sofrer eternamente no suposto “INFERNO”? Deus garantiu a salvação dos seus entes queridos? Não. Cada um paga pelos próprios pecados.

Esta é a salvação pela qual se perde o caráter, a dignidade e o respeito próprio. Esta é a salvação pela qual muitos matam e morrem.

Este paraíso seria o inferno para aqueles que têm um mínimo de sensibilidade, mas não para o cristão. Ele irá para o paraíso ou não…mas ele nunca pensa que não irá…ele irá…é irracional, e no paraíso só entrarão os irracionais. O fato é que eles perdem a vida, não são felizes, têm baixa autoestima sentindo-se inferiorizados, fazem conversões de pessoas inocentes e incautas trazendo-as para a sua igreja ou a sua religião. E o que é conversão? Eles sabem o que estão fazendo? Não. Não sabem e não pensam nisto. Conversão é uma troca…conversão de moedas, etc. Quando se converte alguém, está se impondo a este alguém a sua religião usando de falsa caridade, ameaças ou chantagens. Quando praticam caridade, não praticam caridade porque desejam ou são caridosos. O fazem em nome do seu deus, da sua religião. A propaganda ou o sermão caminham juntos com a caridade. É a falsa caridade. Outra técnica de conversão usada é a chantagem e a ameaça… “Se não seguir o meu deus você não vai se salvar e será atormentado eternamente no inferno”…Se fizer isto deus castiga”…”Deus está vendo”…Só o meu deus salva”…. Adotam o sofrimento como bandeira e querem que todos sejam iguais a eles ou façam o que eles fazem…e sofrem…se humilham…rastejam…imploram…adoram…oram…comem grama, etc… O paraíso é uma promessa vazia de homens que arrecadam dinheiro e ficam muito ricos com a ignorância e irracionalidade destes servos…dizem que possuem livre arbítrio… E vão todos para o Inferno que significa SEPULTURA na bíblia…COVA…

Não entenderam ainda o que significa “vir do pó e voltar a ser pó?”…ou …”foram feitos de barro e voltarão a ser barro?”. O espírito se salva…MENTIRA. Nunca existiu isto no Velho Testamento. Deus ensinou errado e Jesus ensinou certo? Decida! Qual é o seu deus? Um deus pode contradizer o outro? Chamar o outro de mentiroso…abolir as leis do outro que criou tais leis? Por que estou perguntando? A fé é irracional.

“Com o suor do teu rosto comerás teu pão, até que te tornes ao solo. Pois dele foste tirado. Pois tu és pó e ao pó tornarás.” Gênesis 3, 19

“Tudo caminha para um mesmo lugar; tudo vem do pó e tudo volta ao pó.” Eclesiastes 3, 20


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Funeral de Um Lavrador
Chico Buarque

Esta cova em que estás com palmos medida
É a conta menor que tiraste em vida
É a conta menor que tiraste em vida

É de bom tamanho nem largo nem fundo
É a parte que te cabe deste latifúndio
É a parte que te cabe deste latifúndio

Não é cova grande, é cova medida
É a terra que querias ver dividida
É a terra que querias ver dividida

É uma cova grande pra teu pouco defunto
Mas estarás mais ancho que estavas no mundo
estarás mais ancho que estavas no mundo

É uma cova grande pra teu defunto parco
Porém mais que no mundo te sentirás largo
Porém mais que no mundo te sentirás largo

É uma cova grande pra tua carne pouca
Mas a terra dada, não se abre a boca
É a conta menor que tiraste em vida
É a parte que te cabe deste latifúndio
É a terra que querias ver dividida
Estarás mais ancho que estavas no mundo
Mas a terra dada, não se abre a boca.

Todos terão os seus sete palmos de terra, povo do deus de Israel.

The Devil in World Religions

By Vexen Crabtree 2014 Feb 04

Many religions contain an enemy of the system: a being that questions why things are the way they are, who challenges the supreme power(s), who accuses them of hypocrisy and who leads mankind away from cosmic ideals of subservience and acquiescence1. Satan often represents the world itself2. It has not appeared universally and many cultures lack any such centralized figure of evil3. In those places where it did arise there has not been a common path of development4. The root of the word Satan comes from ha-satan, a Hebrew word meaning “the accuser”, “opposer” and “the adversary”, or as a verb, “to accuse” and “to oppose”. Anyone could be described as ha satan depending on their actions. The Septuagint Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures rendered the word as diabolus, from which we get the word “devil”. InChristianity it is Satan, The Devil; in Islam it is Shaitan or Iblis and in Buddhism it is Māra. All these opposing beings promote the materialism of this world, rather than the more spiritual route of abstaining from stuff in order to obtain the next world. In other words, the primary role of Satan, in its various guises in world religions, is the rejection of spiritual wishful-thinking, and the embrace of our present real-world life. It seems that from the point of view of philosophical naturalism, Satan turns out to be the “good” guy!

1. Explaining Evil: Why World Religions Personify Evil

Aside from Satan, Christianity and Islam say that hosts of beings fell from heaven. In Islam these are Jinn – sometimes spelt “Djin”, “Jinn” or even “Genies” in some popular myths. In many polytheistic religions many gods have dark and evil sides as well as good ones, and those sides are given individual names and personified. These types of beings represent the parts of the natural world that people found it hard to explain – pain, disease, natural disasters, mental instability and other evil and scary things. Because their “good” gods can’t have crested these things, there must be other being responsible for them. God forbid that such things are merely the results of impartial natural laws of physics – unthinkable! Because the simple and ignorant people of the past could not fathom the basis of life in chemistry, the basis of natural disasters in geology and physics, and the basis of disease in biology and genetics, the representations of the evil forces in nature seemed to them to be perfectly suited to an intentional agency. So they perceive demons, devils, the jinn, and many others. They all result from ignorance and fear, and they all oppose the supreme creator and what is “good”. Through these scapegoats the supreme creator is excused responsibility for creating death, pain and suffering.

The word jinn probably means covert or darkness. Jinns are the personifications of what is uncanny in nature, or perhaps the hostile and unsubdued aspects of it.

Why I am not a Muslim” by Ibn Warraq (1995)5

By trying to separate the “evil” side of the natural world from the “good”, these religious beliefs make it very hard to understand the natural world. In reality there is no good and evil, and natural forces are simply impartial, amoral and blind. It is a great boost to the ego to believe that cosmic forces are fighting over you, but reality is much more boring. By creating hosts of demons and devils to represent the evil, and then trying to blot them out, these religionists lose grip of reality. This is why scientists – who study the truth – have very frequently come into battle with religious institutions!

Now, the development of such arch-nemeses has come by various historical means and is not universal. In the Hebrew world, over time the disparate hosts of demons slowly came to be seen as being organized under various demon-princes. As superstitions slowly decreased, the number of individual, unique demons fell. In their place arose the more philosophically-minded idea of a generic personification of conscious evil (which was incidentally under the control of god). But it was all-too-easy to imagine that there was a genuine battle between God and ha-Satan (the opposer), although to believe that you have to find a way of explaining why the all-knowing creator of everything chose to create Satan at all. You’d think it would simply pass him by. These philosophical problems are the result of a mythology that developed over time, rather than the result of one that was worked out sensibly from the beginning. In India there is no such all-pervading figure that represents evil. Gods have good and angry sides, so, no single figure of torment was necessary. But A. A. Macdonell reports that this wasn’t always the case – there was once the idea of a cosmic battle between good and evil more akin to Zoroastrianism. He says: “the older Rig-Vedic notion of the conflict of a single god with a single demon, mainly exemplified by Indra and Vrta, gradually developed into that of the gods and the Asuras in general being arrayed against each other in two hostile camps”4, although nowadays (and for some time), such abstract notions are not given credence amongst the world’s most populous nation. Sir Charles Eliot declares confidently that “no sect of Hinduism personifies the powers of evil in one figure corresponding to Satan, or the Ahriman of Persia”4.

Links:

2. Religions

2.1. Zoroastrianism (Ahriman)

Zoroastrianism is one of the most ancient religions about which anything is known, and is over 3,000 years old6. It still has followers today. It arose in ancient pre-Islamic Iran “in the eastern and south-central regions of the Iranian world, between the great mountain ranges of the Hindu Kush and Seistan, an area that today is divided between Iran and Afghanistan” and it still survives there, although it faces constant and sometimes violent persecution. It was supposedly founded by Zarathustra (Zoroaster)6.

It is in many ways monotheistic, in that there is a single creator god (Ahura Mazda), and this makes it a significant precursor to many of the religions that later rose in a similar vein, including the monothestic religions Judaism, Christianity and Islam. But Zoroastrianism is mostly often called dualistic1 because most concerns are to do with Ahura Mazda’s twin children “Spentu Mainyu (‘beneficient spirit’) and Angra Mainyu (‘hostile spirit’)”6. The hostile spirit is better known by its Middle Persian equivalent: Ahriman. Their different temperaments arise “from the choice they made between ‘truth,’ asha, and the ‘lie,’ druj, between good thoughts, good words, and good deeds and evil thoughts, evil words and evil deeds”6. The battle between these two define the theology of Zoroastrianism and this dualistic idea of ‘spiritual warfare’ remain with monotheistic religions to this day, especially Christianity and Islam1, although the perceived balanced between God and Satan is different.

 

2.2. Buddhism (Māra)

Book Cover

Many religions, typically Eastern religions such as Buddhism7 and Hinduism8, assert that everyone lives through a long succession of lives and that the material world and all conscious beings are separated from Nirvana. The cycle of rebirth (samsara) is a cycle of angst, pain and delusion, and only escape from the whole system can end suffering. To escape you need to attain enlightenment, and it is your desires, wants and carnal side that prevents this from happening, inBuddhism the being that represents the distractions of the real world is called Māra. The bad guys of the Buddhist the Pāli Canon are dominated by the single figure of Māra and long passages are devote to this ‘Evil One’9.

Reference to Māra in the Buddhist cannon, and its etymology, identify it with the very concept of death (and life, and consciousness, and all other Earthly things). “It is connexion with death, but particularly the overcoming of death, that Māra is often mentioned in the Canon. In this context death is always regarded as an evil, the unwelcome Antaka, the ender of an existence which is not ready to be ended”10. Māra represents darkness and blindness11 and all the sensory pleasures12. The full extent of Māra’s power is utterly formidable to everyone except those on the verge of enlightenment, and is generally formidable even to those who have been following the eightfold-path for some time:

Put into Māra’s mouth in the Kassaka Sutta:

‘Mine, recluse, is the eye, mine are material shapes, mine is the field of visual consciousness. Where can you go, recluse, to escape from me? Precisely mine, recluse, are the ear, sounds, the field of auditory consciousness; the tongue, tastes, the field of gustatory consciousness; the body, touches, the field of tactile consciousness; precisely mine, recluse, is the mind, mine are the mental states, mine is the field of mental consciousness.’

All these claims of Māra are conceded by the Buddha: ‘Precisely yours, Malign One, is all this. But where there is none of this, there is no coming in for you.’ [...] What emerges from these definitions is a conception of the whole of samsāric existence as the realm over which Māra rules. [...] In terms of Buddhist cosmology this is a way of referring to the whole of life apart from [Nirvana]. [...]

Enumerated in detail in the Suttanipāta [Māra's forces] consist of passion, aversion, hunger and thirst, craving, sloth and torpor, fear, doubt, self-will, cant, and various forms of self-exaltation. Prominent among these, and specially closely connected with Māra is the first, passion (kāma, orrāga).

Buddhism and the Mythology of Evil” by Trevor Ling (1997)13

An author who has studied Māra and the Christian Satan, Ernst Windich, came to the conclusion that despite some striking similarities, there are an equal number of striking differences, and that each idea really diddevelop independently14. It seems easy to see that where Māra and the Christian Satan mesh well is exactly in the way that us humans excel at creating abstract personalities from real-life problems (why is there evil, suffering and death in the world?), and where they mesh least well is in the theological and philosophical underpinning of the arch-enemy of mankind.

2.3. Judaism and Christianity (Satan, The Devil)

2.3.1. Satan in the Hebrew Scriptures

There are surprisingly few references to Satan in the Christian Bible. Some references once seen as being references are now known to be otherwise due to better translations, such as that to Lucifer, which we now know refers to an honourable dead king. Even the serpent in the story of Adam and Eve is not Satan (and isn’t called Satan) as the Garden of Eden was a perfect paradise and a place free of sin, so Satan could not have been there. It is ridiculous to think that God ejected Adam and Eve from Eden for sinning whilst it allowed Satan itself to creep around there!

Satan wasn’t even the name of the opposer for most of the history of Judaism. There was a being called the opposer, or the adversary. So in The Book of Job in the 4th century BCE, a being described as the satanapproaches God. “Satan” wasn’t its name; the word used means “the opposer”. It was only later that “Satan” became a name of a being15.

In biblical sources the Hebrew term the satan describes an adversarial role. It is not the name of a particular character. Although Hebrew storytellers as early as the sixth century B.C.E. occasionally introduced a supernatural character whom they called the satan, what they meant was any one of the angels sent by God for the specific purpose of blocking or obstructing human activity.

The Origin of Satan” by Elaine Pagels (1995)16

  • Zachariah 3:1-2: “And he shewed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to resist him”.
  • Psalm 109:6: “and let Satan stand at his right hand”
  • Numbers 22:22,32: “and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against him” [...] behold, I went out to withstand thee,”
  • 1 Samuel 29:4: The Philistines say: “lest he [David] be an adversary against us”
  • 2 Samuel 19:22: David says: “[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be [satans/adversaries] (plural) unto me?”
  • 1 Kings 5:4: Solomon writes to Hiram: “there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent.”
  • 1 Kings 11:14: “And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite”[12]
  • 1 Kings 11:23,25: “And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah. [...] And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon”
  • 1 Chronicles 21:1: Satan invokes David to break God’s law against counting his men. Although when the same story is told in 2 Samuel 24:1, it is actually God who invokes the transgression. See: the discussion below: God and Satan are Interchangeable.
  • Job 1:8-12: God and Satan conspire to bring much suffering against the holy man Job, although the roles of God and Satan are intermingled. See: the discussion below: God and Satan are Interchangeable.

2.3.2. God and Satan are Interchangeable

Yea, the darkness hideth not from thee; but the night shineth as the day: the darkness and the light are both alike to thee.

Psalms 139:12 (KJV)

And no marvel; for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light.

2 Corinthians 11:14

As various authors copied copies of the Hebrew Scriptures, changes accumulated in the stories. Sometimes, the same story appears twice. There are even two accounts of the Creation that contradict each other in the details. One such doubled story shows us clearly that the Old Testament God is evil, and Satan itself is not a separate being, but is actually part of God, a face of God. There is one occasion when David took a census of his men in order to count how many could fight in the armies of Israel. 1 Chronicles 21:2 and 2 Samuel 24:2 both contain a copy of the exact same text:

So David said to Joab and the commanders of the troops, “Go and count the Israelites from Beersheba to Dan. Then report back to me so that I may know how many there are.”

1 Chronicles 21:2

So the king said to Joab and the army commanders with him, “Go throughout the tribes of Israel from Dan to Beersheba and enroll the fighting men, so that I may know how many there are.”

2 Samuel 24:2

What had happened is that God had a rule: That David was not allowed to ‘number’ Israel. But, for some reason, David went ahead and did so. As a result, God punished them all for breaking his rule. But, it is very telling when we examine the preceding verse: Who inspired David to count Israel’s fighting men?

Satan rose up against Israel and incited David to take a census of Israel.

1 Chronicles 21:1

The anger of the LORD burned against Israel, and he incited David against them, saying, “Go and take a census of Israel and Judah.”

2 Samuel 24:1

In one copy of the story, we are told Satan told David to do so. In the other, it was God. How can this be? It is because in the Old Testament, Satan and God are the same being. Satan in the Old Testament is merely the face that God puts on when it is testing its people. “The anger of the Lord” is Satan. It was common in old religions (Hinduism, Roman religions, etc) for gods to have multiple faces, each associated with different emotions. In the Christian Bible, Satan is God.

A similar confusion of roles happens in the Book of Job. In Job 1:8-12 Satan approaches God and asks to test Job‘s loyalty to God. In Job 1:11 it is God who is asked “put forth thine hand now, and touch all that he hath, and he will curse thee to thy face”. Satan‘s idea is that if God demolishes Job‘s good life, then Job will no longer be faithful to God. But Satan can’t do this itself as it is God that has the power to do evil. In the next verse God gives that power to Satan:

And the LORD said unto Satan, Behold, all that he hath is in thy power; only upon himself put not forth thine hand.

Job 1:12 [KJV]

So, Satan acts only when God gives it power to do so. Once again, we see that God and Satan are merely two facets of the same being. One final verse seals this idea. Who, when it comes to the concluding of the story in chapter 42, is given the credit for bringing evil against Job? It is God itself:

[Job's friends and family] comforted him over all the evil that the LORD had brought upon him.

Job 42:11 [KJV]

Other translations such as Young’s Literal Translation phrase it in the same way. God and Satan are intertwined. Satan can’t do anything except by the will of God. Psalms 139:12, 1 Chronicles 21:1-2 and 2 Samuel 24:1-2, and Job 1:8-12, 42:11 all confuse good and evil, God and Satan into one single creative force, with God being described as not only the source of evil, but as its actual instigator. God cannot be benevolent.

2.3.3. Lucifer – The Misreading of Isaiah Led to the Demonisation of an Innocent Name

Most people equate Lucifer with Satan because of the mistakes of a large number of enthusiasticChristian writers, relying upon, as they were, a mistranslation and misunderstanding of a verse from the Bible. Popular poems, stories and (nowadays) the film industry, are all compelled towards continuing the association due to a lack of theological knowledge and academic fact-checking. Lucifer is not Satan.

The idea of the Devil as Lucifer, the fallen angel cast from Heaven because of his pride, derives from Isaiah 14:12-15. Although Isaiah was not actually referring to the Devil, but to the King of Babylon, the name Lucifer has become associated with Satan because of the similarity of passages such as Luke 10:18 and Revelation 9:1 to the Isaiah scripture.

Bible Facts” by Jenny Roberts (1997)17

The academic world has realized the errors. For example, in 1913 Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary stated:

Lucifer \Lu”ci*fer\, n.
[L., bringing light, n., the morning star, fr. lux, lucis, light + ferre to bring.]
1. The planet Venus, when appearing as the morning star; — applied in Isaiah by a metaphor to a king of Babylon.

Translations of Isaiah 14:12
Literal Potentially Misleading
“light bringer” or “morning star” Lucifer
New International Version
New American Standard Bible
Amplified Bible
New Living Translation
English Standard Version
Contemporary English Version
American Standard Version
Young’s Literal Translation
King James Version
New King James Version
21st Century King James Version
Darby Translation.

The notes of the Amplified Bible on Isaiah 14:12 are particularly useful: “The Hebrew for this expression–“light-bringer” or “shining one”–is translated “Lucifer” in The Latin Vulgate, and is thus translated in the King James Version. But because of the association of that name with Satan, it is not now used in this and other translations. Some students feel that the application of the name Lucifer to Satan, in spite of the long and confident teaching to that effect, is erroneous. The application of the name to Satan has existed since the third century A.D., and is based on the supposition that Luke 10:18 is an explanation of Isaiah 14:12, which many authorities believe is not true. “Lucifer,” the light-bringer, is the Latin equivalent of the Greek word “Phosphoros,” which is used as a title of Christ in II Pet. 1:19 and corresponds to the name “radiant and brilliant Morning Star” in Rev. 22:16, a name Jesus called Himself. This passage here in Isaiah 14:13 clearly applies to the king of Babylon”.

So not only is the association of Lucifer with Satan wrong, but, it seems it is incredibly wrong: every indication points towards Lucifer actually being an alternative name of Jesus Christ, and, Isaiah 14:13 is an honourable and mournful passage about the loss of a fallen king, not about the fall of a being called Lucifer. The Greek means “bringer of light”, and is the name of the planet Venus, which has long been associated with clear-mindedness and spirituality by the myths of the world. It occurs in Buddhism in its positive and correct sense:

We are told that on the night of the full moon of Wesak (the month of May in the Western calendar), the Buddha fixed his mind on the morning star as it was rising, and the moment of full enlightenment occurred.

Buddhism” by Clive Erricker (1995)18

2.4. Islam (Shaitan, Iblis)

In Islam the equivalent of ha satan is Shaitan, which can be used to describe any barrier or opposition toGod, no matter its intention. The formal name of the being that represents all such attempts is Iblis. However, it is safe to assume that wherever you see Shaitan capitalized as Shaitan, then, it is in fact a reference toIblis. Shaitan is often easier to use because of its similarity to Satan.

The Islamic theology of Satan runs like this: After creating Adam, God commands all to bow before Adam.Satan, one of the Jinn (genies) (18:50) refuses because he was made from fire, while humans are only made from clay (7:10-18, 15:26-39, 17:61-63, 18:50, 20:115-123). The argument doesn’t make any sense, but, rather than re-educate Satan, God decides that a more useful course of action is to condemn Satan forever.Satan asks permission to cause evil for others and to lead them astray (e.g., 15:39), and rather than keep peace in the Universe and protect humanity from this powerful foe, God goes for it. The whole story is stated in 7:10-27, again in 15:26-46 and again in 20:115-124; and a shorter version in 17:61-63.

Satan and the jinn were not rejected for any action that was immoral, but for their questioning of a divine command. Freethought, intelligence, truth-seeking and doubt are all strictly forbidden: this has parallels with the Christian concept of the Tree of Knowledge in the Garden of Eden: Believe the wrong things, or, be tricked, and you will be punished severely and eternally! The God of Islam and Christianity is a true monster.

In Islam a Muslim must always seek to worship the creator, Allah, and not the creation (the material world). The worship of material things is the utmost evil. Satan represents materialism, truth-seeking and intelligence, three of the greatest enemies of the Islamic God.

Satan in Islam is also a surprisingly slippery fellow, and it is hard to discern what part he plays in the formal theology of Islam, where the power and justice of God is emphasized so heavily at the price of any other powerbase. The infamous Satanic verses are a peculiarity that have no comparison in Christianity, but, are on the surface similar to the way in which the Buddhist Mara confuses the ears and eyes of humankind:

At one point Muhammad and his kin were opposed by the polytheists around them. In particular, they were oppressed by the followers of 3 pagan gods in Mecca. When defeated, surrounded and under siege, Muhammad ‘seems to have even compromised his monotheism, at first, to make peace with the Meccans’19 and then he suddenly recalled some text that stated that the three pagan gods were valid intercessors after verses 19 and 20 (see how it reads now: Qur’an 53:10-12,18-23), after all! Lucky for Muhammad he remembered this important fact!

When Muhammad had a powerful army and his exiled followers returned, he recited a further passage: saying that it was an error, the three pagan gods were not valid – that Satan recites his own verses but now that “God annuls what Satan casts” Qur’an 22:52! How could this be? For starters, it blatantly contradicts Qur’an 39:28 which says the Qur’an is perfect. There are two possibilities. Firstly, that it is true that Satan can sneak verses into the Qur’an, or, that Muhammad simply made them up, in order to preserve his own skin in the face of defeat against the pagans. Either possibility undermines our trust in the entire book. If that insertion was made, but annulled, what others have been made, and left in?

The Qur’an is Incomplete and Untrustworthy: 2.2. Did Muhammad or Satan Insert the Verses?
Vexen Crabtree
(2002)

2.5. Polytheism, Hinduism (Not Applicable)

It is hard to find a comparison for Satan within Hinduism, Norse religion, Greek religions, etc, because inpolytheistic religions many beings have good and evil sides, and there are frequently different beings representing death, hell, evil, etc, but which also had positive sides. In such complicated and loose systems it is not possible to find a being or force that represents an enemy of the entire pantheon. “Buddhism and the Mythology of Evil” by Trevor Ling (1997) quotes Sir Charles Eliot on p46: “No sect of Hinduism personifies the powers of evil in one figure corresponding to Satan, or the Ahriman of Persia'”.

2.6. Norse Religions (Nidhogg)

Browsing through “Norse Mythology” by Arthur Cotterell (1997) (which is a part of his larger more generic work) I noted two beings: Nidhogg and Ymir.

Nidhogg. Germanic mythology, a dragon living at one of the three roots of the cosmic tree Yggdrasil. The freezing mist and darkness of Niflheim, which was the lowest of the nine worlds, was where the dragon lived, ripping corpses apart and eating them. Between mouthfulls he would send the squirrel Ratatosk up the cosmic tree on an errand of insult. [...] when momentarily tired of the taste of dead flesh Nidhogg would gnaw at the root of Yggdrasil itself.

Norse Mythology” by Arthur Cotterell (1997)

Satan is also later described as a dragon by Christian authors. Heathenism did not have a single “evil” god or force, nearly all the gods had darksides. But there is something appealing about Nidhogg! Depictions of the roots of Yggdrasil have snakes wrapped around the lowest roots. Such a being, feeding off of death (as life feeds from its killed prey, in turn feeding Nidhogg) constitutes the death of the cycle of life itself. If we see that all life dies, then Nidhogg will be victorious over all life, just as Satan represents death’s victory over all life. Nidhogg is not listed as an Infernal Name by Anton LaVey in The Satanic Bible, probably because beyond a few artistic details there is not much that can be formed in the way of a philosophy or a principal of Nidhogg.

Ymir in Germanic mythology was the first living creature. He was a frost giant who emerged from the ice in ‘the yawning emptiness’. He was evil and the mother and father of all frost giants. [When dead] his flesh became the Earth.

Norse Mythology” by Arthur Cotterell (1997)

Counting the Earth as good because it supports Human life (my life!), Ymir is an aspect of mythology that, like Satan, can be seen to be a mechanism by which the Earth is dependent on Satanic power. (All good is based on evil, see Good is Derived from Evil: Satanic Theory” by Vexen Crabtree (2002)).

This ties in roughly with the Islamic view of Satan. The Earth was created because Satan wished to create a secret domain away from God in order to have power. Although Satan is evil, we consider the Earth good and without the effects of this evil force the Earth would not exist.

 

2.7. Various Religions and Belief Systems

  • The Raelian Movement: “According to the Raelians, Satan is one of the Elohim, the race of aliens that created humanity. While most of the Elohim want humanity to develop and grow, Satan considers them a threat, is against the genetic experiments that created them, and believes they should be destroyed. He is blamed for some of the catastrophes that the Bible blames on God such as the Great Flood that destroys everyone save Noah and his family. The Raelian Satan is not necessarily evil. While he works toward the destruction of humanity, he does so with the belief that only evil can ultimately come from humanity”20.

  • Heaven’s Gate: “Satan is a being that has partially gone through the process of reaching the Next Level, which is the goal of believers. However, before fully completing this transformation and gaining acceptance into the Kingdom of Heaven, Satan and other “fallen angels” decided to re-embrace material existence and encouraged others to do so. As elevated beings, they can possess human bodies just as the aliens of the Kingdom of Heaven can”20.
  • Zhonghua Dalu Xingzhen Zhishi Zhan: An obscure and short-lived sect in China, which spun off from a Christian group called The Shouters. They themselves became the rebels, arguing “that the current government was associated with Satan and should be overthrown. The sect’s leadership was eventually arrested in 1995. It is unlikely that the membership ever numbered more than a few thousand”21. China is not a good place for such irrationalitiy (or dissent).

2.8. Satanism – The Church of Satan (Conglomerate)

Representing the enemy of God and the materialism that prevents spiritual escape from this world, Satan is the being of life, and of the enjoyment of life, and is therefore the nemesis of nearly all religious escapism. From one of the main pages on this website: Who is Satan? The Accuser and Scapegoat” by Vexen Crabtree (2010):

Satan is good and evil, love and hate. It is the gray; the totality of reality undivided into arbitrary dichotomies. Satan is not a real being, not a living entity, not conscious, nor a physical thing that can be interacted with. It is a symbol, something ethereal, something that exists as an emotional attachment and personal dream. Just like Buddhists do not worship Buddha, Satanists hold up Satan as an ultimate principle rather than an object of literal worship.Satan inspires and provokes people, so, like all (honest) religions the ultimate point is self-help. God-believers have a different opinion on what Satan is, but their opinion is a result of their religion, steeped in mankind’s ignorant past. Satanism’s Satan is much more eclectic and multicultural than to be defined by Christianity or Islam.

Satan is the dark force in nature representing the carnal nature and death of all living things. The vast majority of the Universe is cold, uninhabitable and lifeless. The only part of the Universe that we know contains life is tied to a system of predator-and-prey: the natural world is violent, desperate, bloody and amoral. If there is a god, it is surely evil. Satan, and Satan alone, best represents the harshness of reality.

Who is Satan? The Accuser and Scapegoat: 1. The Modern Symbol of Satan” by Vexen Crabtree (2010)

3. Righteous Satan

Some theologies and theories place Satan as a saviour and a defender of righteousness, and the white light God as an evil oppressor. Most common is the acceptance of Satan as a “true” correct symbol used to represent crisp reality, with God as the negative symbol of delusion. Satanic religions hold to this idea even if they lack the actual belief in a real god or Satan. These are common themes in Satanic music, and are also present in nearly all schools of thought that are labelled as Devil Worship. Some ancient Gnostic religions also hold that the good-seeming god is evil, whereas there are other more obscure good forces in life. I have a page on this particular take on Satan on my Satanism website; here is its menu:

4. Who Believes? The Slow Demise of Satan: Satan is Not Universal, Not Everywhere

The concept of a single figure of personified evil has not appeared universally and many cultures lack any such centralized symbol. For example, In Hinduism3 and in other polytheistic belief systems there is no such single deity because all of the gods themselves have good and bad sides, which together explain the evils of life without the need for a monopolizing instigator of suffering. Likewise in some philosophical-minded religions such as Bahá’í Satan is denied any power or formal standing in the theology. Developed, liberal,Christianity has reached the same conclusion, with bodies such as the Church of England being highly reticent to mention “Satan” anywhere. Aside from religious groups, the large number of atheists, humanistsand other non-religious folk around the world also, of course, lack a belief in Satan.

A YouGov poll (2013) reports that in the UK, 65% of the populace do not believe in Satan – it is still quitesurprising that 18% actually do. In the USA, an astounding 57% believe in it.22

In Europe, Satan was taken most seriously in the late Middle Ages and Early Modern period23, a time in which human learning and knowledge was severely challenged by social instability and the Christiandomination of education. Likewise, in other parts of the world where superstition is rife and schools are sparse, the idea of evil spirits cause much fear. Philosophical and intellectual development tend to weaken the worth of the idea of Satan, and in Christianity and Buddhism the symbol is becoming superfluous24, with the concept of “evil” itself often being downgraded to mere “human sinfulness” (part of the system) andnatural disasters (explained by science). Despite this, Satanists hold on to the positive elements of the symbol, and the biggest Satanic organisation is the Church of Satan which already accepts Satan only as a metaphor, and not as a real being.

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By Vexen Crabtree 2014 Feb 04
Second edition 2010 Nov 12
Originally published 2003 Jan 30
http://www.humanreligions.info/satan.html
Parent page: Human Religions

Fonte:  http://www.humanreligions.info/satan.html#Biblical